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If there is a sector which has undergone major changes in the Sahara region so it will be that of urbanization process. Indeed, a comprehensive program to develop patterns of urban development has been started since 1975 in the main cities of the Sahara region. These patterns of urban development are continuously updated to meet the growing needs of people in terms of housing and basic equipment.


The urban state’s strategy the Sahara region has three key objectives:
 

• The first concerns the resettlement of the most needy families clustered until 1975 in substandard dwellings;
• The second seeks to meet the increasing demand for housing due to population explosion witnessed in major cities of the region and the Kingdom in general;
• The third consists in achieving a balanced and orderly development of urban areas by taking into account the physical and socio-economic specificities of the region.

Since 1976, several emergency programs have been launched to eliminate slum neighborhoods inherited from the colonial period in the cities of Laayoune, Dakhla, Boujdour and Smara.
 

These emergency programs were followed by social structured housing programs for impoverished or poor populations. Batches of land were also arranged to encourage and induce the beneficiaries to build their own homes. 

For example, many housing units smoothly structuring the urban spaces have sprung up in the Sahara region. The construction of these homes was often accompanied by works and paving roads, rehabilitation, restructuring and expansion of  wastewater networks and connection to water services, electricity " lighting, and telephony.

The building of residential areas has also been strengthened by the construction of commercial buildings and public utilities: schools, training and qualification centers, hospitals and clinics, sports grounds, young and culture houses...
 
Infrastructure took a major part in urban development of cities in the region of the Sahara. It include national and provincial highways, ports, airports, connection to water and electricity and telecommunications via optical links with the Agadir based phone centers.
 

There are also activity areas that house the core cities which gather all socio-professional categories.

 
Thanks to these urban development plans worthy of modern cities and the willingness Sahrawi of men and women, the Sahara region has been able to become the most promising of the Kingdom with enormous potential in all sectors. 

If there is a sector which has undergone major changes in the Sahara region so it will be that of urbanization process. Indeed, a comprehensive program to develop patterns of urban development has been started since 1975 in the main cities of the Sahara region. These patterns of urban development are continuously updated to meet the growing needs of people in terms of housing and basic equipment.

The urban state’s strategy the Sahara region has three key objectives:

• The first concerns the resettlement of the most needy families clustered until 1975 in substandard dwellings;

• The second seeks to meet the increasing demand for housing due to population explosion witnessed in major cities of the region and the Kingdom in general;
• The third consists in achieving a balanced and orderly development of urban areas by taking into account the physical and socio-economic specificities of the region.

Since 1976, several emergency programs have been launched to eliminate slum neighborhoods inherited from the colonial period in the cities of Laayoune, Dakhla, Boujdour and Smara.

 These emergency programs were followed by social structured housing programs for impoverished or poor populations. Batches of land were also arranged to encourage and induce the beneficiaries to build their own homes. 

For example, many housing units smoothly structuring the urban spaces have sprung up in the Sahara region. The construction of these homes was often accompanied by works and paving roads, rehabilitation, restructuring and expansion of  wastewater networks and connection to water services, electricity " lighting, and telephony.

The building of residential areas has also been strengthened by the construction of commercial buildings and public utilities: schools, training and qualification centers, hospitals and clinics, sports grounds, young and culture houses...
 

Infrastructure took a major part in urban development of cities in the region of the Sahara. It include national and provincial highways, ports, airports, connection to water and electricity and telecommunications via optical links with the Agadir based phone centers.

There are also activity areas that house the core cities which gather all socio-professional categories.

Thanks to these urban development plans worthy of modern cities and the willingness Sahrawi of men and women, the Sahara region has been able to become the most promising of the Kingdom with enormous potential in all sectors.  


Laayoune Province 

The following satellite photos show urban development in the city of Laayoune since its return to the motherland:



Laâyoune City in 1965


 Laâyoune City in 1979 
 


 Laâyoune City in 1986 

 

The plan below shows the urban development of the city of Laayoune until 2006:

 

 

The following tables show the state of town planning documents in the region of Laayoune:

Document

Target Locality

State

Next Step

SDAU

-M. Laàyoune  - M. El Marsa - C.R Foum El Oued

Approved January 21, 2004

Appeared in Official Bulletin n°5193 on March 8,2004

PA

-Laàyoune Municipality

Under study

A conciliation meeting will be scheduled to consider the option

PA

- El Marsa Municipality

Under study

A conciliation meeting will be scheduled to consider the option

PA

- Tarfaya Municipality

Application sent for the opening of public inquiry in 2003

Currently, the application is still on standby

PA

- “ El Marsa - Foum El Oued” seaside band

Local Concertations

The plan is in line for approval

PA

 Foum El Oued

Under Study

Restructuration study has been completed and will be integrated into PA

P.D

- Daoura

Approved  29/05/03.

The plan was approved on May 29, 2003.

P.D

- Tah

Under study

The plan is in line for approval

PAC

- Akhfennir

Under study

 Report of the second phase under study

P.D

- Dcheira

Under study

Under study the justifying report and the development plan.

P.D

- El Hagounia

Under study

- Center Topographic Survey achieved

P.D

- Boucrâa

Under study

- PD  study underway

P.D

Amigriou boarding point

Approved

PD study underway

-

P.D

Tarouma fishermen village as integrated project

- Local Concertations

Project under study

 

Document

Approved

Being Approved

Under Study

Overall

SDAU

1

-

-

1

P.A

-

-

6

6

P.D

2

1

4

7

Total

3

1

10

14

 

The development the Laayoune city is planned within the framework of a tripartite body composed of three entities:

• Laâyoune as administrative and service pole
• El Marsa as economic and industrial area
• Foum el Oued being the seaside tourist area of the metropolis

 

 

The urban planning activity in the province of Laayoune includes three categories of projects: 

 

• The subdivision operations to be carried out in gradual adjustment zones(ZAP) as part of New Housing Programme in the Sahara region, as presented, on behalf of the Government of His Majesty the King, by Delegate Minister to the Prime Minister in charge of Housing and Urban Development during the session of the Royal Advisory Council for Saharan Affairs (CORCAS) held on  December 21-22, 2006 and devoted to the region’s housing sector;  

 

Other social housing operations to be carried out in various urban centres and rural regions of the Sahara, in the form of subdivisions in gradual adjustment zones(ZAP), or programs to upgrade urban under equipped neighborhoods, including the major urban centres of the South, such as the city of Laayoune;

 

Promotional property transactions of subdivision or construction which is a cornerstone of the new strategy for the introduction of a true real estate market locally, which will be based on housing projects with new promotional products, such as economic villas, evolutionary improved housing, Villa parcel and summer housing.
  
This production will be crowned by the clearance of land units and the involvement of banking institutions in the financing of investments in real estate, as well as buyers. 

 
In the short term, 13 new operations will be launched, covering 30,744 units, including 26,839 lots, 105 economic villas and 3,800 restructuring units at an amount of 1.602,65 MAD. These transactions cover the three above-mentioned categories of projects. The following table shows all these data: 

 

 Projcet

 

 

Number

 

 

Consistency

Cost (MAD)

 

Share/Consistency

 

 

Share/ Cos

New Housing Project in the Sahara Region

4

25 815 lots

1 465,25

84  %

91,4  %

Urban Upgrading

2

3.800 families

24,85

12,3  %

1,6  %

Property development

7

105 economic villas 1024 lots

112,55

 

3,7  %

 

7  %

 

Overall

13

30 744 units

1 602,65

 


Details of these projects are given in the following two tables:

Province

Operations

Localization

Consistencies

V.I.T

(MAD)

Lots

Com

Lots

Restructuration units

Laâyoune

 

New Housing Programme in the Sahara Region

 

-Madinat Al Wahda (2nd stage) Blocs G, H, I and J

-Madinat Al Wifaq

-Madinat 25 Mars

 

Urban Upgrading

 

-Six Districts of Laayoune

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Laayoune

Laayoune

Laayoune

 

 

 

Laayoune

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4 014

10 995

7 606

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3 200

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

178,50

726,25

395,50

 

 

 

21,85

 

Total Laâyoune

 

 

 

22 615

 

3 200

 

1 322,10


 

Province

 

Programmes

Localization

Consistancies

V.I.T

(MAD)

 

Lots

 

Com

 

Lots

 

Restructuration units

Laâyoune

 

- Riad I Lotissement

Laâyoune

 

 

317

 

32

- As Saada Residence

Laâyoune

53

 

 

 

23,85

- Al Bahr Residence

El Marsa

52

 

 

 

23,40

- Al Amal I Lotissement

El Marsa

 

 

100

 

4

- Al Wahda I Lotissement

Foum El Oued centre

 

 

267

 

3,85

- Ach Chatii I summer Lotissement

 

Foum El Oued beach

 

 

190

 

 

13,30

 

Total Laâyoune

 

105

 

 

874

 

 

100,40

 

 

 


Madinat 25 Mars
 



 

 

 



  

Madinat Al Wahda

 



Madinat Al Wifaq

 

 






 


The medium-term planning provides for the development of nearly 1,023 hectares, including 800 hectares to develop Al Marsa and Foumd El Oued communes. The expected consistency amounts to about 7,055 units as shown by the following table:

 

Communes

 

Operations

 

 

Surfaces

 

 

Consistancies

 

C.U Laâyoune

 

 RIAD II villa district- LAAYOUNE and Residence of economic villas AS SAADA II

 

 

15 ha 41 a 25 ca

 

 

296 villa percels and 50 economic villas

C.U Laâyoune

 

 Laayoune urban upgrading– banks of Oued Sakia Al Hamra

 

50 ha

 

1 500 families

C.U Laâyoune

 

Headquarters of Planning Society

OMRANE AL JANOUB

 

30a 88 ca

 

 

Office Building

 

C.U Laâyoune

 

Résidence Administrative de Laâyoune

 

5 ha 50 a

 

 

150 apartments et 50 villas

C.R Foum El Oued

 

 

ZAP Lotissement at Foum El Oued Al WAHDA II

 

7 ha 29 a 48 ca

 

 

247 parcels

C.R Foum El Oued

 

 

ACHATII I summer Lotissement (2nd phase) and ACHATII II summer city

 

2 ha 50 ca

 

200 parcels and 30

bungalows

 

C.R Foum El Oued

 

 

Study of the scheme structure over 400 hectares

Site Extension of Foum El Oued beach

 

400 ha

 

 

Islets

C.U El Marsa

 

 

Study of the scheme structure over 400 hectares

the new city of El Marsa

 

400 ha

 

 

Islets

C.U Tarfaya

 

 

 AL MASSIRA  ZAP Lotissement

 

10 ha

 

400 parcels

CU Tarfaya

 

 Tarfaya Urban Upgrading

 

60 ha

 

2000 families

C.R Akhfennir

 

 

 AL OBOUR ZAP Lotissement

 

 

10 ha

 

 

400 parcels

 

C.U Boujdour

 

 

LA CORNICHE I  villas (2nd phase) and Residence of economic villas

 

 

20 ha

 

400 parcels

52 economic villas

CR Jraifia

 

ZAP Lotissement and Public House Service at the center of Ftissate

 

2 ha

 

80 parcels

C.U Boujdour

 

 

AL MAJD Lotissement (1st phase)

 

40 ha

 

1200 parcels

Total

1 023 ha 01 a 61 ca

7 055 units and arranged islets

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dakhla Province

The situation of town planning documents and guidance diagrams are provided below:

Document Type

Under Study

Being  endorsed or approved

Endorsed or approved

Date od endorsment or approval

SDAU

 

01

 

--

 

--

 

Preliminary Report

PA Dakhla

 

--

 

--

 

01

 

2000

PA El Argoub

 

--

 

--

 

01

 

2002

 

Open Centers

Endorsment or approval

Date

 Rural Commune of

Bir Guendouz

 Approved locally and not opposable to third parties

 

2001

Labouirda Center (Rural Commune rurale of Imlili)

 

Approved locally and not opposable to third parties

 

 

2002

N’Tireft Center (Rural Commune of El Argoub)

 

Approved locally and not opposable to third parties

 

 

2002

   

The Dakhla planning will increase the new surface area of urbanization to about 1500 ha. This will open approximately 1,119 ha for new urbanization.
 

This development plan was approved in 2000 (2.99.11.06 decree of March 6, 2000). It is being updated to take into account changes on the ground (derogations in some areas).

 

Over 1,500 ha, the part reserved to housing is about 456 ha; bringing the capacity of the city to more than 150,000 inhabitants. The areas of activity in all categories account for about 302 hectares, they are divided into 217 ha planned in the port area and 85 Ha planned in the city. 

 

 

The areas to be urbanized in the short term are equipped with drinking water, electricity and sanitation works are being finalized.
For areas to be urbanized in medium term, works are subjected to connecting the sector to the network of drinking water.





 

   

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